Written Separation Agreements

Navigating the complexities of separation and eventual divorce can be emotionally challenging. Understanding the legal aspects of the process is crucial. In Virginia, Maryland and Washington D.C., a written separation agreement is a valuable tool to ease the stress and emotion of separating from your spouse.  A written agreement can also help prepare you for divorce by addressing all the important issues of the marriage that mut be resolved. 

Perhaps the greatest benefit of a written separation agreement is certainty.  A well-drafted agreement will clearly state each spouse’s rights and obligations.  More importantly, if you eventually file for divorce, you want to ensure the court will accept the agreement. All too often, courts reject agreements for failing to meet basic legal requirements. Or worse, a poorly drafted agreement is sometimes accepted by the court only for the parties to learn that the terms are unenforceable.  

If you recently separated from your spouse or you believe that separation may be on the horizon, you should reach out to an experienced divorce attorney at Bourdon & Tortolero today. We serve clients throughout Virginia, Maryland, and DC and are standing by to help draft an agreement that protects your interests both now and in the future.

Key Components of a Separation Agreement

1. Asset and Debt Division: The agreement should specify how assets and debts will be distributed between the spouses. This includes real estate, bank accounts, investments, credit cards, car loans, mortgages, student loans and any other jointly held property or debts.

2. Alimony:  The terms of spousal support, or alimony, should be clearly outlined in the separation agreement. This includes the amount, duration, and any conditions under which alimony may be modified or terminated. If you and your spouse are waiving alimony, your agreement should cover that.  Virginia, Maryland and Washington, D.C. each have unique rules about waiving support.  It is important that any waiver of support follow the rules of your jurisdiction.

3. Child Custody and Visitation: For couples with children, the separation agreement can and should address child custody arrangements, visitation schedules, and decision-making responsibilities. Virginia, Maryland and Washington, D.C. courts prioritize the best interests of the child when reviewing these provisions.  Although all three jurisdictions use a best interest standard, each is different.  Your agreement should be tailored to meet the requirements of your jurisdiction.  

4. Child Support: The agreement should also establish the terms of child support, including the amount and the manner in which it will be paid. Child support arrangements are subject to court review to ensure they comply with laws of the jurisdiction and serve the child’s best interests.

If you live in the DMV, it is important to know that Virginia, Maryland and Washington, D.C. each have different approaches and legal requirements for separation agreements.  It is wise to consult with an experienced attorney in the proper jurisdiction to ensure that your agreement meets the legal requirements of your jurisdiction.  We have attorneys in Virginia, Maryland and Washington D.C. who are experienced in preparing separation agreements. 

Separation Agreements in Virginia:

In Virginia, a separation agreement is a legally binding contract. Virginia law does not recognize a “legal separation.” You cannot obtain a court order officially recognizing a separation. Instead, couples in Virginia can formalize their separation through a written separation agreement. But, your separation agreement can (and probably will) be incorporated into the final divorce order. This means that your agreement can become both a contract and an enforceable court order. Violating the terms may lead to contempt charges. 

Virginia courts typically uphold separation agreements as long as they are fair, voluntary, and made with full understanding of assets and liabilities. In general, Virginia Courts will honor child support, custody and visitation agreements that are fair to the child and the parties. But, keep in mind that Virginia courts have the power to reject agreements that don’t conform to Virginia law or clearly don’t serve the child’s best interests. An experienced Virginia divorce attorney can help craft an agreement that avoids common pitfalls related to child support, custody and visitation.

Like any contract, a Virginia separation agreement must be entered into freely and voluntarily.  Courts may also consider whether the agreement is unconscionable (severely and unreasonably unfair to one party).  Usually, Virginia courts will strictly follow the financial terms of a separation agreement. In some cases, parties can include language that will prevent a court from modifying the separation agreement even if it seems unfair. An experienced Virginia divorce lawyer can help safeguard your rights when preparing the agreement.


In Maryland, separation agreements are commonly used to settle issues arising from the separation of married couples. These agreements cover similar ground as in Virginia and Washington D.C., including the division of property, spousal support, and child-related matters. Maryland courts typically uphold separation agreements that are fair, voluntary, and entered into with full financial disclosure from both spouses. Maryland courts may review and modify certain provisions, particularly those related to child support and custody, to ensure they align with the best interests of the child.

Maryland courts have the authority to modify certain provisions of a separation agreement, particularly those related to child custody and support, if circumstances change. Similar to Virginia, Maryland courts must make an independent determination that the agreement conforms with Maryland law. The courts must also find that the parties entered into the agreement freely and voluntarily and that the agreement is generally fair.  If one party is represented by an attorney lawyer and the other is not, Maryland courts will more closely examine the agreement.  Therefore, it is wise for each party to have their own attorney review the agreement.

Like in Virginia, the separation agreement is usually incorporated into the final divorce order, making its terms legally binding as a court order. An experienced Maryland divorce lawyer can help ensure the separation agreement is legally sound and enforceable.

Washington D.C.:

Washington D.C. also recognizes separation agreements as legally binding contracts between spouses who have decided to live apart. Like Virginia, these agreements can cover various matters, including property division, alimony, child custody, and child support. However, it’s important to note that child support and custody arrangements are subject to court review, and the court will always prioritize the best interests of the child.

In Washington D.C., a separation agreement must be in writing and signed by both parties. As in Maryland, the courts will closely scrutinize agreements when one party has a lawyer and the other doesn’t.  So, it is a good idea for each party to have the agreement reviewed by independent legal counsel to ensure that it meets all legal requirements and adequately protects the interests of both parties.

A Note on “Fairness”

As mentioned earlier, in divorce proceedings, the courts in Virginia, Maryland, and Washington D.C. are supposed to review a separation agreement for its “fairness.” It’s crucial to recognize that what may be considered fair in the eyes of the court may not align with the understanding of fairness for the average person. Additionally, it’s important to note that fairness doesn’t necessarily mean equality. Quite often, an “unfair” agreement will be accepted by the court if it meets the basic legal requirements of the state or jurisdiction.  Likewise, a “fair” agreement may be rejected by the court for failing to meet the basic legal requirements.  The courts in Virginia, Maryland and Washington, D.C. have different approaches when deciding whether to accept or reject a separation agreement. An experienced divorce attorney can help you understand the specific requirements unique to your jurisdiction. 


Navigating separation agreements in Virginia, Washington D.C., and Maryland requires careful consideration of the specific laws and requirements of each jurisdiction. While separation agreements provide a useful framework for couples to formalize their separation, consulting with legal professionals is crucial to ensure that the agreements are fair, enforceable, and in compliance with local laws. Whether in Virginia, Washington D.C., or Maryland, a well-drafted separation agreement can contribute to a smoother transition during a challenging time in one’s life.

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